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|Alan Shepard Becomes the First American
on May 5, 1961
Shepard spent most of May 4th in flight preparation with backup astronaut Marine Lieutenant Colonel John H. Glenn, Jr. Before retiring at 10 P.M., Shepard called his wife, Louise, who was staying at the couple's Virginia Beach, Virginia, home with their younger daughter, Juliana, and their niece, Alice Williams. He also called his older daughter, Laura, at her boarding school in St. Louis, Missouri, and his parents at their home in New Hampshire.
Shepard and Glenn were awakened at 1:05 A.M. from the astronaut quarters on the mezzzanine of Cape Canaveral's Hangar S. After a shower and shave, Shepard enjoyed a breakfast of filet mignon and bacon, two poached eggs, orange juice, coffee, and dry toast. He then underwent a brief physical, after which a variety of biomedical sensors were attached to his body.
At. 3 A.M., suit technician Joe Schmitt helped Shepard into his 20-pound pressure suit.
"Gus" Grissom (center) listens
while Schmitt talks to Shepard by telephone.
Just before 4 A.M., Shepard walked out of the hangar, carrying his portable air conditioner, and climbed into Transfer Van One, the "rolling clinic" that took him to Launch Pad 5, at which he arrived at 5:14 A.M..
Shepard slid, feet first, into his space capsule at 5:20 A.M. and the hatch was bolted shut at 6:10. The last man to see Shepard before the hatch was closed was Guenter Wendt, pad leader for the McDonnell Corporation, builder of Freedom 7.
Shepard was launched from Cape Canaveral's Pad 5. The voice in his earphones during the countdown and launch belonged to fellow astronaut Donald "Deke" Slayton. In addition to a host of technicians, his flight was closely monitored from within the Mercury Control Center by Glenn, Grissom, and Mercury Life Systems Director Dr. Stanley C. White.
The rocket's engine cut out 2 minutes and 22 seconds after launch. Top speed had been reached (5,180 miles per hour), and an altitude of 243,000 feet (approximately 46 miles) had been achieved.
Shepard took manual control of the capsule at T plus 3 minutes and 10 seconds (9:37:10).
Apogee (116.5 miles) was reached, and re-entry approach began. Freedom 7 re-entered the atmosphere at 9:41:48. During the 90 seconds of re-entry, the capsule's speed slowed from 5,180 mph to 300 mph. Temperature on the outside of the heat shield rose to 100º F and cabin temperature rose to 111º F (from 93º F at liftoff), but the temperature inside Shepard's suit only rose to 78º F (from 71º F at launch).
A small stabilizing drogue parachute was deployed at 21,000 feet, a ventilation valve opened at about 15,000 feet, and the main chute was deployed at 10,000 feet. The capsule splashed down at 9:49 EST, 302 miles from Cape Canaveral, 7 miles from the planned impact point.
Freedom 7 and Shepard were recovered by Marine Helicopter 44, piloted by Lieutenant Wayne Kooms. Ten minutes after splashdown, both were safely aboard the Lake Champlain.
After a physical test aboard the Lake Champlain, Shepard was flown to Grand Bahama Island, where a small, white aluminum hospital had been specially built for Project Mercury. Shepard spent the next 72 hours debriefing, resting, and being subjected to a detailed series of physical tests.
Unless otherwise noted, all pictures on this page are credited to NASA.
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This page was last updated on 11/02/2017.