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Biography, A-Z


Jagadish Chandra BoseJagadish Chandra Bose
conducted some of the first research into electromagnetic radiation; developed equipment for generating, transmitting, and receiving radio waves; demonstrated the properties of what we now know as microwaves; and demonstrated that plants respond to various stimuli as if they have a central nervous system.
Luigi GalvaniLuigi Aloisio Galvani
first gained fame for his research on the organs of hearing and genitourinary tract of birds, but is today best known for his study of "animal electricity." In the latter, he found that muscular contractions are caused by electricity generated within the body and carried by nerves.
Alexander von HumboldtAlexander von Humboldt
gained great acclaim as a scientist after spending five years trekking through South America. The volumes of observations he made during the expedition covered a wide range of subjects, including botany, volcanoes, meteorology, astronomy, and geography.
Christiaan HuygensChristiaan Huygens
used a telescope he made himself to discover Saturn's rings, to become the first to observe surface markings on Mars, and to discover the giant nebula in the constellation of Orion. While studying how forces act on a body moving in a circle, he designed and built the world's first accurate mechanical chronometer.
Louis PasteurLouis Pasteur
discovered the process of using heat to kill germs now known as pasteurization. He subsequently developed the theory of vaccination, and then developed vaccines for chicken cholera, anthrax, and rabies.
John Wesley PowellJohn Wesley Powell
spent much of his early adulthood exploring and studying the natural history of Wisconsin, Illinois, and the surrounding region. After losing an arm in the Civil War, he led expeditions to Colorado and down the Colorado River. He also studied Native American customs and myths, and served as director of the U.S. Geological Survey.
Sir Benjamin Thompson, Count RumfordSir Benjamin Thompson, Count Rumford
developed a theory of heat that helped found the branch of physics known as thermodynamics. He also investigated the insulating properties of various materials and correctly determined that the insulating properties of these natural materials arise from the fact that they inhibit the convection of air.
Evangelista TorricelliEvangelista Torricelli
proved that vacuums must be created because there are no natural ones. The experiments he carried out on vacuums led him to discover that the atmosphere has weight, and that that weight can be accurately measured using a tube of mercury (what we now call a barometer).

The Robinson Library >> Science