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Dynamic and Structural Geology


Four Ways to Make a MountainFour Ways to "Make" a Mountain
Mountainous regions are created by movements of the earth's crust. These movements occur very slowly, but on a large scale. Different parts of the earth's crust react in different ways to these movements, and form four basic types of mountains.
Cross Section of a Typical VolcanoCross Section of a Typical Volcano
Types of VolcanoesTypes of Volcanoes
Volcanologists divide volcanoes into three main groups, each of which is based on the shape of the volcanoes and the type of material they are built of.
Ilha Nova IIIlha Nova II
eruped in a volcanic burst from the ocean at Fayal Island in the Azores on June 13, 1958.
Paricutin, The 'Corn Field Volcano'Parícutin, "The Corn Field Volcano"
On February 20, 1943, Dionisio Polido noticed a column of smoke coming out a 3-inch hole in the corn field he was plowing. That smoke turned into ash, and then into a volcano. Today Parícutin rises 1,345 feet above the ground, and 9,210 feet above sea level.
Mount PinatuboMount Pinatubo
In June of 1991 this volcano in the Philippines was the scene of one of the most explosive eruptions ever recorded. The ash cloud generated during the eruption rose 22 miles into the atmosphere, spread out to a width of 250 miles, and ultimately circled the Earth at least once. The eruption also directly affected weather patterns worldwide.
San Andreas FaultThe San Andreas Fault
is a fracture in the earth's crust marked by a zone of disrupted land in California. The fault extends more than 750 miles from off the coast of northwestern California to the southeastern part of the state near the Mexican border.
Chile Earthquake of 1960Chile Earthquake of 1960
The most powerful earthquake ever recorded struck Chile on May 22, 1960. The magnitude 8.5 earthquake triggered tsunamis that caused more grief in Chil, as well as the west coast of the United States, Hawaii, Japan, and the Philippines. The earthquake also triggered a volcanic eruption that lasted for two months.
Portugal Earthquake of 1755Portugal Earthquake of 1755
On the morning of November 1, 1755, the southwestern corner of Portugal was struck by one of the largest earthquakes ever felt in Europe. The city of Lisbon, Portugal, was all but destroyed by the quake, aftershocks, and resulting fires.
Mohole ProjectThe Mohole Project
attempted to drill a hole down to the boundary between the earth's crust and mantle. Doing so would, it was believed, provide a concrete check on theories about the age, origin, and composition of the earth.

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