How Ballast Helps
A Submarine "Float, Dive, Swim and Surface"
is the name of a 3-person research submersible capable of
taking scientists and observers 14,764 feet (almost 3
miles) below the surface of the ocean. Since its launch
in 1964, Alvin has made over 4,400 dives,
carrying two scientists/observers and one pilot per dive.
Research conducted by Alvin has been featured in
nearly 2,000 scientific papers.
Designed by record-setting balloonist Auguste
Piccard, the Trieste became the first manned
vessel to ever reach the bottom of Challenger Deep (a
depth of 35,800 feet) on January 23, 1960. One of the
members of the two-man crew was Jacques Piccard, son of