shared the 1923 Nobel Prize in Medicine for his
role in isolating and mass-producing insulin,
which was first tested on a human in 1922.
spent his life in the study of immunity. In 1889
he produced an antitoxin against diphtheria, and
in 1890 produced an antitoxin against tetanus. He
was the receipient of the 1901 Nobel Prize for
Physiology and Medicine.
became the first woman to earn a medical degree
in the United States in 1849. Despite facing many
obstacles before and after earning her degree,
she went on to gain great respect as a physician
and to co-found a hospital for women and children
and a women's medical college.
developed a method for staining bacteria for
study that is still used today, formulated a
theory that explained why antitoxins are
effective, and was a pioneer in the field of
chemotherapy. He was a co-recipient of the 1908
Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine.
"preached" the importance of anatomical
knowledge to any practice of medicine. He made
many important discoveries regarding the movement
of blood in the body, and was the first physician
to use the pulse as an indicator of illness when
compared to the normal pulse.
was the first to free medicine from its
traditional link with magic and religion. He
believed that every disease had a natural cause,
rather than being some kind of "infliction
from the gods."
was the first to suggest that blood is a living
substance, speculated that the embryo in its
development may go through various phases
resembling more primitive creatures, and
pioneered the art of tissue grafting.
recognized that it was possible for a relatively
mild disease of cows to confer immunity against
smallpox to humans. He successfully tested his vaccination
theory in 1796.
discovered that sterilizing surgical areas,
instruments and surgeons' hands reduced
post-surgical infection and death dramatically.
He called the practice of such sterilization antiseptic
was the developer of cerebral angiography, the
use of radioactive tracers and x-rays to locate
brain tumors. He also pioneered the prefontal
lobotomy as a treatment for schizophrenia,
paranoia, and other mental disorders. The latter
work earned him a share of the 1949 Nobel Prize
believed in the treatment of the whole person and
in nature's own healing tendencies. He also saw
the importance of "mental power" as an
element in the healing process.
prefered to treat gunshot wounds with ointment
and bandages rather than cauterization, and
invented upper and lower extremity prostheses
that were hundreds of years ahead of his time.
carried out research into a number of diseases,
including cholera, typhoid,
malaria, and yellow fever. In 1898-99 he
determined that typhoid is spread by flies, and,
in 1900, he led a team that determined that
mosquitoes were the principal carriers and
transmitters of yellow fever.
was influenced to study polio by an epidemic of
that disease that hit New York City in 1931. He
began testing a live-virus vaccine in 1954, and
by the 1970's that vaccine had succeeded in
nearly eradicating polio from the world.
conducted research on the lymphatic system,
blood, vlood vessels, and more. That work led to
her becoming the first woman faculty member at
the Johns Hopkins School of
Medicine, the first woman president of the
American Association of Anatomists, the first
woman member of the National
Academy of Sciences, etc.
developed the Schick Test, which involved
injecting a small amount of diphtheria toxin
under the skin; the extent of a child's immunity
to the disease could be determined by the
presence or absence of a reaction around the