began writing poetry and short stories for
popular magazines at an early age, the income
from which she used to help support her family.
Her first successful book, Hospital Sketches,
was published in 1863, but she is best known for
her novel Little Women, which was
published in two parts in 1868 and 1869.
is best known as the author of "America the
Beautiful," a poem inspired by her travels
across the country. The poem was first published
in 1895, revised in 1904 and 1913, and set to
music in the 1920's.
was the author of Nuggets and Dust Panned Out
in California, The Fiend's Delight,
Cobwebs from an Empty Skull, and several
other stories. As a journalist, he wrote a series
of columns that prevented the railroad interests
of California from gaining special treatment from
the federal government.
decided to become an author at a time when such
an occupation was considered little more than a
hobby or pasttime. He became the first American
novelist to win an international reputation. His
best known works include Wieland; or the
Transformation; Arthur Mervyn; Ormond;
and Edgar Huntly.
established the genre of southern local-color
fiction with the publication of Old Creole
Days in 1879. Although his works earned him
critical acclaim, they also earned him nasty
criticism from those who disliked his advocating
full civil rights for African-Americans.
better known as Mark Twain, began his writing
career with humorous sketches,
letters, and newspaper accounts, including
"The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras
County." His novels include The
Adventures of Tom Sawyer, The Adventures
of Huckleberry Finn, and A Connecticut
Yankee in King Arthur's Court.
was the first author to seriously
portray American scenes and characters. He is best
known for The Leatherstocking
Tales, five novels about frontiersman Natty
Bumppo and his constant retreat from the
advancing settlement of the frontier.
filed some of the most enthralling news stories
during the Spanish-American War, many of which
were based on the exploits of Theodore Roosevelt
and the "Rough Riders." He also gained
fame as a novelist and playwright.
became the first African-American to gain
national eminence as a poet, as well as the first
to be popular with both black and white readers,
with Majors and Minors, which was
published in 1895. In 1896, his Lyrics of
Lowly Life became the first work by an
African-American to be published by a major
trained for the ministry but a crisis of faith
led him to become a lecturer and writer instead.
Many of his lectures and writings expounded on a
new philosophical movement called
transcendentalism, of which he became the leader.
is best known for his Uncle Remus stories, which
first began appearing in serial form in the Atlanta
Constitution about 1876.
is best known for being the author of The
Battle Hymn of the Republic, which was
published in 1861, but she was also openly
involved in a number of causes, including women's
suffrage and world peace.
helped introduce European writers to American
readers, and challenged American writers to
choose American subjects. Many of his novels deal
with various issues of his day in an increasingly
realistic manner, including: The Rise of
Silas Lapham, A Hazard of New Fortunes,
Annie Kilburn, and The Coast of
first gained fame as the author of Knickerbocker's
History of New York, a boisterous,
satirical account of the state of New York from
its earliest colonial days. He is best known
today, however, for two short stories he
published as part of a larger work, "Rip Van
Winkle" and "The Legend of Sleepy
enjoyed a brief period of fame as a flautist
before earning acclaim as a poet. That acclaim
began with "Corn" in 1875, and lasted
until his death just six years later.
wrote poems that covered a variety of styles and
contents, including "Paul Revere's
Ride," Evangeline, The Song of
Hiawatha, and The Courtship of Miles
was a noted poet, editor, literary critic,
lecturer, teacher, scholar, social reformer, and
diplomat. His best-known works are A Fable
for Critics, The Biglow Papers, and
The Vision of Sir Launfal.
became one of the most popular authors of his day
thanks to three novels loosley based on his
experiences at sea. Ironically, the novel for
which he is today best known, Moby Dick,
was not well received by his contemporaries.
first earned fame as a literary critic, but is
best known today for his many short stories and
poems with dark, often macabre, themes. He was
one of the earliest American practitioners of the
short story, and is generally considered the
inventor of the detective fiction genre.
was known as the "Hoosier Poet" because
many of his poems were written in the dialect of
his home state, Indiana. Although he authored
approximately 1,000 poems in his lifetime, he
gained most of his fame on the speaking circuit.
was inspired to write her most famous novel by
talking and listening to runaway slaves. Uncle
Tom's Cabin began as a serial that
eventually grew into a 40-chapter book. Published
in 1852, it was the first major American novel to
feature a black hero and sold over half a million
copies in the United States within five years.
was a very popular journalist, traveler,
lecturer, poet, and translator. His trips to
Europe resulted in several well-received books,
including Views Afoot; or, Europe seen with a
Knapsack and Staff. A series of reports on
the California Gold Rush resulted in Tribune;
Eldorado, or, Adventures in the Path of Empire,
which was an immediate best-seller.
was a part-time humor columnist for the San
Francisco Examiner who gained fame after
revealing that he was the author of Casey at
the Bat, which was published by the Examiner
in 1888. Now an icon of the baseball world, the
poem did not become famous until after it was
turned into a stage performance.
published the first edition of Leaves of
Grass, containing just 12 poems and a
preface, in 1855. By the time of his death in
1892 he had published seven subsequent revised
and enlarged editions of the collection.
had more than 80 of his poems published in
various newspapers and magazines by the time he
was twenty. A devout abolitionist, most of his
early works reflected his his
anti-slavery views, including Justice and
Expediency. After the Civil War his works
focused on religion, nature, and rural life,