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trench warfare

World War I, 1914-1918


Timeline of Events Europe in 1914Europe in 1914
Although World War I did not officially begin until July 28, 1914, the fires that sparked it had been burning since the early 1800's. Peoples controlled by rulers who often did not even speak their language were developing nationalist feelings. Powerful nations were allied together to advance their own aims. Competition for colonies, resources and access to trade routes was often fierce.
Participants in World War IParticipating Nations
In the First World War, four Central Powers nations fought twenty-four Allied nations.
The Western Front in 1914The Western Front in 1914
On August 2, 1914, German troops moved into Luxembourg, and on August 4 they invaded Belgium. The Allies sent British and French troops to help the Belgians, and the German advance was effectively stopped at the First of the Marne (September 6-9), ending Germany's chances for a quick victory.
Military Casualties by Nation The Eastern Front in 1914The Eastern Front in 1914
In August 1914, Russian forces moved into East Prussia, where they were met and defeated by Germans under retired general Paul von Hindenburg. In the south, Austria-Hungary failed in three attempts to invade Serbia.
Pictures -- The SoldiersPictures of and from the War -- The Soldiers The Balkan Region in 1914The Balkan Region in 1914
On August 2, 1914, the Ottoman Empire signed a secret treaty with Germany. In the last days of October, Turkish warships bombarded Russian ports on the Black Sea. France, Great Britain and Russia then declared war on the Ottoman Empire.
Pictures of World War I -- Battles and BattlefieldsPictures of and from the War-- Battles and Battlefields The Austro-Italian Front in the First World WarThe Austro-Italian Front
In 1915, Italy signed the secret Treaty of London with France, Great Britain, and Russia, agreeing to join the Allies in exchange for land in Europe and Africa. Italy declared war on Austria-Hungary that same year, and on Germany in 1916.
Pictures of World War I -- EquipmentPictures of and from the War -- Equipment Battle of Chateau ThierryThe Battle of Chateau Thierry
was fought on July 18, 1918, and was one of the first major actions undertaken by the American Expeditionary Force. It ended with a decisive victory for the French and Americans.
Pictures of the War -- Commanders and LeadersPictures of and from the War -- Commanders and Leaders The Rhineland After VersaillesThe Rhineland After Versailles
The Treaty of Versailles gave parts of the Rhineland to France and Belgium, and granted some autonomy to the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg.
Pictures of World War I -- Medical CarePictures of and from the War -- Medical Care Danzig and the Polish CorridorDanzig and the Polish Corridor
Danzig was the natural port of Poland and of the Vistula River Basin, and had been for many centuries outside the political frontiers of Germany. Claimed by Germany during World War I, it was returned to Poland after the war.
Pictures of and from the War -- Armistice and Returning Home Versailles NegotitionsVersailles Negotiations
Manfred von RichtofenManfred Albrecht Freiherr von Richtofen
aka the "Red Baron," scored 80 confirmed aerial kills before being killed during a brief dogfight over France.
Surrender of the German NavySurrender of the German Navy
On November 21, 1918, the entire German Navy formally surrendered to the British Royal Navy.
Moina Belle MichaelMoina Belle Michael
was inspired to wear a poppy after reading John McCrae's poem "In Flanders Field." She was further inspired to sell artificial poppies to raise funds for America’s disabled veterans, and her efforts raised so much money that the American Legion adopted the poppy as its symbol.

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