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Syrian Arab Republic

Al Jumhuriyah al Arabiyah as Suriyah

Location Middle East
Bordered By
Turkey, Iraq, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon

Area 71,448 sq mi (185,180 sq km)
Greatest Distance East-West 515 mi (829 km)
Greatest Distance North-South 465 mi (748 km)
Coastline 94 mi (151 km)
Highest Point Mount Hermon; 9,232 ft (2,814 m)
Lowest Point unnamed location near Lake Tiberias; -656 ft (-200 m)
Natural Resources
petroleum, phosphates, chrome and manganese ores, asphalt, iron ore, rock salt, marble, gypsum, hydropower

Nationality Syrian
Population (July 2016) 17,185,170
Largest Cities Aleppo, Damascus, Homs, Hama, Latakia
Ethic Groups Arab, Kurdish, Armenian
Principal Religions Muslim (official), Christian
Principal Languages Arabic (official), Kurdish, Armenian, Aramaic, Circassian, French, English

Capital Damascus
Form of Government presidential republic
Present Constitution Adopted
February 15, 2012
Chief of State
President Bashar al-Asad (since July 17, 2000)
Head of Government
Prime Minister Imad Muhammad Dib Khamis (since June 22, 2016)
Council of Ministers
People's Assemby (Majlis al-shaab)
Court of Cassation, Supreme Constitutional Court
Local Administration
14 provinces (muhafazat)

Unit of Currency pound (SYP)
Per Capita Income
Principal Industries
petroleum, textiles, food processing, beverages, tobacco, phosphate rock mining, cement, oil seeds crushing, automobile assembly
Agricultural Products
wheat, barley, cotton, lentils, chickpeas, olives, sugar beets; beef, mutton, eggs, poultry, milk
Principal Exports
crude oil, minerals, petroleum products, fruits and vegetables, cotton fiber, textiles, clothing, meat and live animals, wheat
Principal Imports
machinery and transport equipment, electric power machinery, food and livestock, metal and metal products, chemicals and chemical products, plastics, yarn, paper

Independence from League of Nations Mandate April 17, 1946
National Holiday
Independence Day, April 17
the band colors derive from the Arab Liberation flag and represent oppression (black), overcome through bloody struggle (red), to be replaced by a bright future (white); identical to the former flag of the United Arab Republic, where the two stars represented the constituent states of Syria and Egypt

United Arab Republic

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The Robinson Library >> General and Old World History >> Asia >> Syria

This page was last updated on 10/02/2017.