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Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Ityop'iya Federalawi Demokrasiyawi Ripeblik

map of Ethiopia

Bordered By Eritrea, Djibouti, Somalia, Kenya, Sudan

location of Ethiopia

Area 426,373 sq mi (1,104,300 sq km)
Highest Point Ras Dejen; 15,158 ft (4,620 m)
Lowest Point Danakil Depression; -410 ft (-125 m)
Natural Resources small reserves of gold, platinum, copper, potash, natural gas

Nationality Ethiopian
Population (July 2015 est)
Largest Cities
Addis Ababa
Ethnic Groups
Oromo, Amhara, Somali, Tigray, Sidama, Gurage, Welaita, Hadiya, Afar, Gamo, Gedeo, Silte, Kefficho
Ethiopian Orthodox, Muslim, Protestant, traditional
Oromo (official in the State of Oromiya), Amharic (official national language), Soamali (official in the State of Sumale), Tigrigna (official in the State of Tigray), Afar (official in the State of Afar), English (major foreign language taught in schools), Arabic, other traditional tribal languages

Capital Addis Ababa
Form of Government federal repblic
Current Constitution Adopted
August 21, 1995
Chief of State
President Mulatu Teshome Wirtu (since October 7, 2013)
Head of Government
Prime Minister Hailemariam Desalegn (since September 21, 2012)
Council of Ministers selected by the Prime Minister and approved by the House of People's Representatives
bicameral Parliament
Federal Supreme Court
Local Administration
9 ethnically based states (kililoch), 2 self-governing administrations (astedaderoch)

Currency Birr (ETB)
Per Capita Income
Principal Industries
food processing, beverages, textiles, leather, chemicals, metals processing, cement
Agricultural Products
cereals, coffee, oilseed, cotton, sugarcane, vegetables, khat, cut flowers; hides, cattle, sheep, goats; fish
Principal Exports
coffee, khat, gold, leather products, live animals, oilseeds
Principal Imports
food and live animals, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, machinery, motor vehicles, cereals, textiles

Independence Achieved the oldest independent nation in Africa; has never been ruled by a foreign nation
National Holiday National Day; May 28 (1991, the defeat of the Mengistu regime)
green represents hope and the fertility of the land, yellow symbolizes justice and harmony, while red stands for sacrifice and heroism in the defense of the land; the blue of the disk symbolizes peace and the pentagram represents the unity and equality of the nationalities and peoples of Ethiopia [adopted ca. 1895, the colors on Ethiopia's flag have been used by so many other African nations that the combination has become known as "Pan-African"]

flag of Ethiopia


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The Robinson Library >> General and Old World History >> Africa >> Ethiopia

This page was last updated on 10/23/2017.