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|Chess News, 1960
Mikhail Tal, a 23-year-old from Latvia, defeated 48-year-old reigning World Champion Mikhail Botvinnik of the Soviet Union in a 21-game match played in Moscow, Russia, March 15-May 7, 1960. Tal won the first of 24 scheduled games and held the lead through the tournament, which was twice delayed when each contestant became ill. Tal becamt the youngest World Chess Champion of the 20th century by defeating Botvinnik 12½ points to 8½.
Elizabeth Bykova defeated Kira Zvorykina for the World Women's Title, 8½-4½, in a match that ended in Moscow on January 5, 1960.
Svetolar Gligoric of Yugoslavia won the annual International Master's Tournament for the third time at Hastings, England, in January 1960 with a score of 7½-1½. Other international tournament winners were: Sveto Trampuz (Yugoslavia), at Reggio Emilia, Italy; a tie between Victor Korchnoi (U.S.S.R.) and Samuel Reshevsky (United States), at Buenos Aires, Argentina; Tigran Petrosian (U.S.S.R.), at Copenhagen, Denmark; Laszlo Szabo (Hungary), at Santa Fe, Argentina; a tie between Laszlo Sazbo and Svetolar Gligoric, at Ascunción, Paraguay; a tie between Bobby Fischer (United States) and Boris Spassky (U.S.S.R.), at Mar del Plata, Argentina; a tie between Atojan Puc (Yugoslavia) and Ludek Pachman (Czechoslovakia), at Sarajevo, Yugoslavia; and a tie between Count Alberic O'Kelly de Galway (Belgium) and Klaus Parga (Germany), at Bognor Regis, England.
World Student Tournament
A United States team scored an upset in the International Students Tournament at Leningrad, Russia, July 17-31, 1960, with a score of 41-11 to 39½-12½ over the favored Soviet team. 22-year-old William Lombardy, who led the U.S. team, was named an International Master during the year.
International Team Matches
The Soviet Union won the World's Team Championship (14th Chess Olympiad) for the fifth time at Leipzig, Germany, October 16-November 9, 1960. World champion Mikhail Tal lost only one match in leading his team to a 34-10 record. The United States placed second with a 29-15 record and Yugoslavia was third with 27-17. There were entries from 22 nations.
Bobby Fischer retained his National Closed Title in New York City, New York, December 8, 1959-January 3, 1960 with a 9-2 record. Robert Byrne placed second at 8-3 and Samuel Reshevsky third at 7½-3½.
Byrne later won the National Open Title from a field of 175 at St. Louis, Missouri, April 9-19, 1960, with a 10½-1½ record. The National Amateur Title went to Raul Benedito at Asbury Park, New Jersey, in May 1960 and the Amateur Speed Title was taken by Joseph Orzano at the same time.
Robin Ault retained the National Junior Title at West Orange, New Jersey, in August 1960.
Britannica Book of the Year 1961 Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 1961
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