commanded two voyages into the waters between
northern Asia and North America, proving that the
two continents are not linked by land and
charting much of the southern coast of Alaska
along the way.
was the first European to land on New Zealand,
the first ship commander to
prevent an outbreak of scurvy during an extended
voyage, sailed further south than any previous
navigator, and "discovered" the
circumnavigated the world three times as a
privateer. Two of those voyages ended in
financial failure, however, and he died before
being able to enjoy his share of the third
voyage's bounty. He also made one of the first
scientific voyages to Australia and New Guinea.
led the first expedition to round the southern
tip of Africa by sea in 1487. In 1500 he was part
of a sea expedition that inadvertently discovered
and named Brazil.
was part of Matthew Flinders' 1801-1803
exploratory voyage to Australia and of David
Buchans 1818 unsuccessful search for the
Northwest Passage. He subsequently led two major
expeditions across Arctic Canada. In 1845 he
embarked on a voyage through the Northwest
Passage, but that voyage ended in disaster.
led three expeditions from England to America.
The first sought a Northwest Passage, but failed.
The other two were carried out with hopes of
finding great quantities of gold ore, but those
hopes were not realized. He did, however, enjoy
great success as a privateer and naval commander.
Vasco da Gama
commanded the first expedition to reach India by
sea from Europe, in 1498.
Prince Henry of Portugal sponsored numerous
voyages along the western coast of Africa. One of
those voyages became the first ever to sail
beyond Cape Bojador, and another the first to
sail up the Gambia River.
wrote the first great travel story by an American
to be published in the United States. In
1786-1788 he walked alone from Germany to eastern
Siberia. He died soon after getting permission to
undertake an expedition to explore the source of
the Niger River in Africa.
led the expedition that ultimately became the
first to sail completely around the world, but
did not live to see the achievement accomplished.
was the first known European explorer to reach
Tasmania and New Zealand and to sight Fiji. He
also charted the north coast of Australia, as
well as many South Pacific islands.
took up mountaineering to overcome
skyness, then made solo ascents of five of the
highest peaks in the world. He subsequently made
a solo raft trip down the Amazon, made a solo
trek from Greenland to Alaska, and then became
the first person ever to complete a solo trek to
the North Pole.