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Arctic and Antarctic Regions


CONTENTS

Major Arctic Expeditions
Antarctic TreatyAntarctic Treaty
On December 1, 1959 twelve nations agreed to ban Antarctic military bases.
Polar Pics, 1957Polar Pics, 1957
Polar News 1959Polar News from 1959
The Quest for a Northwest PassageThe Quest for a Northwest Passage
The explorers who followed Christopher Columbus were more interested in finding an easy route to Asia than they were in exploring and settling North America. So they began to look for a "Northwest Passage," or waterway, that would take them around or through the continent.
USS SargoU.S.S. Sargo Reaches the North Pole
On February 9, 1960, the nuclear submarine U.S.S. Sargo surfaced from beneath the ice pack near the North Pole.
Project Lead DogProject Lead Dog
In August 1960 a 41-man team traversed over 600 miles of northern Greenland. Its mission was to experiment with transportation equipment, conduct weather studies, and map a safe route to the northernmost part of the world.
Greenland: Facts and FiguresGreenland
Local Name Kalaallit Nunaat. Area 840,004 sq mi. Population 57,733. Capital Nuuk. Form of Government self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark.
Roald AmundsenRoald Amundsen
led the first voyage through the Northwest Passage in 1905 and the first party to reach the South Pole in 1911. In 1926 he became the first person ever to reach both geographic poles, when he flew over the North Pole in a dirigible.
Richard Evelyn ByrdRichard Evelyn Byrd
established the first scientific base in Antarctica -- Little America -- in 1928. In November of 1929, he and three others became the first persons to fly to the South Pole and back. In 1955 he helped establish the first permanent U.S. bases in Antarctica.
Matthew Alexander HensonMatthew Alexander Henson
became the first man to reach the North Pole by "land" on April 6, 1909, a full 45 minutes before the leader of the expedition, Robert Peary.
Robert Edwin PearyRobert Edwin Peary
used Eskimo survival techniques to lead the first successful "overland" expedition to the North Pole in 1909. He was not, however, the first to actually reach the pole; that honor went to his personal assistant Matthew Henson.
Pictures from Robert Peary's Expedition to the North PolePictures from Robert Peary's Expedition to the North Pole
Robert Falcon ScottRobert Falcon Scott
led an exploration of Antarctica in 1902-1904 that reached further south than any other humans, fixed the position of the South Magnetic Pole, and undertook other scientific investigations. He died in 1912, while returning from a failed attempt to become the first to reach the geographic South Pole.

The Robinson Library >> Geography