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Republic of Peru

República del Perú

Origin of Name the Quechua of Central America referred to this region as "Piru," meaning land of abundance, and that name was subsequently adopted by the Spanish conquistadors (as Peru)

map of Peru

Location western South America
Bordered By
Ecuador, Colombia, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile

location of Peru in South America

Area 496,225 sq mi (1,285,216 sq km)
Greatest Distance E-W 875 mi (1,408 km)
Greatest Distance N-S 1,225 mi (1,971 km)
Coastline 1,448 mi (2,330 km)
Highest Point Nevado Huascarán; 22,205 ft (173 m)
Lowest Point Pacific Ocean coast; sea level
Natural Resources copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash, hydropower, natural gas

Nationality Peruvian
Population (July 2016 est)
30,741,062
Largest Cities
Lima, Arequipa, Callao
Ethnic Groups Amerindian, mestizo, white
Religions Roman Catholic, Seventh Day Adventist
Languages Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara

Capital Lima
Form of Government constitutional republic
Present Constitution Adopted
December 29, 1993
Chief of State and Head of Government
President Pedro Pablo Kuczynski (since July 28, 2016)
Cabinet
Council of Ministers
Legislature
unicameral Congress of the Republic of Peru (Congreso de la República del Perú)
Judiciary
Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia)
Local Administration
25 regions (regiones) and 1 province (provincia)

Currency Neuvo Sol
Per Capita Income
$12,200
Industries mining and refining of minerals, steel, metal fabrication, petroleum extraction and refining, natural gas, fishing and fish processing, textiles, clothing, food processing
Agricultural Products
aspargus, coffee, cotton, sugarcane, rice, potatoes, corn, plantains, grapes, oranges, coca; poultry, beef, dairy products, fish, guinea pigs
Export Commodities copper, gold, zinc, crude petroleum and petroleum products, coffee, potatoes, asparagus, textiles, guinea pigs
Import Commodities petroleum and petroleum products, plastics, machinery, vehicles, iron and steel, wheat, paper

Independence Achieved July 28, 1821
From Spain
National Holiday Independence Day; July 28
Flag three equal vertical bands of red, white, and red, with the coat of arms centered in the white band;
the coat of arms features a shield bearing a vicuna (representing fauna), a cinchona tree (the source of quinine, signifying flora), and a yellow cornucopia spilling out coins (denoting mineral wealth); red recalls blood shed for independence, white symbolizes peace

flag of Peru

SEE ALSO
Ecuador
Colombia
Brazil
Bolivia
Chile
Lima

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This page was last updated on April 11, 2017.